:-Shubham kumar Singh
The engagement of youngsters in political parties is quite visible during all the elections, rallies and protests. But the most practcal question for this relationship needs to be asked:
Do political parties and leaders stand for the empowerment of youth?
Is it merely a‘use and throw’relationship or does it lead towards a‘win‐win’ situation for both? Despite their huge presence inpolitics, youth do not get similar opportunities as older politicians. For many youth, active engagement with political parties does not translate into a regular source of income whether through an elected position or through the parties.
Secondly, politicians and elected representatives have the moral responsibility to fix the broken public education system and find ways to create employment opportunities for them, which they do not initiate at local level.
Thirdly, the most interesting and surprising part is that even the young political activists do not raise some of the core issues which primarily affect them and their generation, such as lack of high quality education in public funded colleges and universities.
Moreover, politicians are not invested in some of the core issues that affect the future of youth with in or out side politics. Political leaders and elected representatives are not seen doing enough to improve the quality ofpublic educational institutions starting from the primary level to the tertiary level, which shape the future of youth.
As kids of most politicians today go to private schools and colleges, they have no skin in the game and hardly bother about the quality of education in public institutions…
Many youngsters also take part in university and college politics.
It is very surprising to see that student unions or youth leaders do not bringup some of the core issues affecting youth today.
With public‐funded institutions deteriorating in many parts of the country, we do not hear them raising the issue of quality teaching in their respective institutions.
We hardly hear about any strike or demonstration around unavailability of teachers in schools and colleges.
Youth leaders also need to act responsibly.
If they are taking up leadership they should not compromise on the quality of education, a prime reason for young people to
be in academic institutions….!
किताबें नहीं, आंखों को पढ़ते हैं हम..!
तभी तो एक नई किताब लिख पाते हैं हम..!
जितना काटना था उतना काट लिया,
जितना काटना था उतना कट गया,
अब काटने और कटने पर रोक लगा कर हीं क्या फायदा..!
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
A quantum computer is a device that performs quantum computing. They are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states.
How quantum computers work?
• Quantum computers operate according to two key principles of quantum physics: superposition and entanglement.
• Superposition means that each qubit can represent both a 1 and a 0 at the same time. Entanglement means that qubits in a superposition can be correlated with each other; that is, the state of one (whether it is a 1 or a 0) can depend on the state of another.
• Using these two principles, qubits can act as more sophisticated switches, enabling quantum computers to function in ways that allow them to solve difficult problems that are intractable using today’s computers.
• Quantum systems may untangle the complexity of molecular and chemical interactions leading to the discovery of new medicines and materials.
• They may enable ultra-efficient logistics and supply chains, such as optimizing fleet operations for deliveries during the holiday season.
• They may help us find new ways to model financial data and isolate key global risk factors to make better investments.
• They may make facets of artificial intelligence such as machine learning much more powerful.
This recent piece in the Washington Post is a reminder what a good man and what an under appreciated President that Jimmy Carter was: The un-celebrity president: Jimmy Carter shuns riches, lives modestly in his Georgia hometown – The Washington Post.
He was dealt a bad hand a number of times, but he achieved greatness too. His greatest deed may have been to allow the United States to transition from the debacle that was the Nixon Presidency. Like Obama with the Great Recession, he saved the country from those that would harm it.
- War is too important to be left to generals
- country’s strength to protect its security and evolve an independent foreign policy is dependent on the degree to which the nation is able to underpin this with self-reliance in defence and defence systems.- Kalam
- “The military sphere and the civil sphere are wholly distinct; you can’t handle an army in kid gloves.” – Sun Tzu
- If there is a sin in the world, it is weakness; avoid all weakness, weakness is sin, weakness is deasth – Vivek ananda
Issue – Fire at ammunition depot in Pulagaon and related issues
- shortage of War Wastage Reserve (WWR) – the ammunition held in the Army inventory
- officially sanctioned requirement is that WWR equivalent to 40 days of intense war be held by the Army.
- However, a CAG audit in 2015 pointed out that the Army itself was procuring ammunition based on ‘Minimum Acceptable Risk Level’ (MARL) requirements, which averaged to WWR for 20 days of intense war
- Even MARL level was not being maintained, the audit found
- serious concerns regarding fire safety, transportation and storage.
- In violation of prescribed safety standards, the Army continued to transport explosives in ordinary vehicles
- in Pulgaon there are sheds covered with tarpaulin.
- not enough had been done to ensure environmentally friendly and timely disposal of expired explosives, and the storage facilities were poor.
- thorough appraisal of the standard operating procedures for storage and inventory.
- This tragedy must be a wake-up call, for the government and the military, to improve the safety of ammunition dumps and to accident-proof the transport of ammunition
Issue – Capacity crisis in Airforce
- Indian airforce has at best 36.5 squadrons
- Indian Air Force’s (IAF) “falling end strength and problematic force structure, combined with its troubled acquisition and development program[me]s, threaten India’s air superiority over its rapidly modernising rivals, China and Pakistan
- air dominance is vital for India if it is to have deterrence stability in southern Asia and for preserving the strategic balance in the wider Indo-Pacific region.
- IAF is “stymied by serious constraints on India’s defence budget,
- the impediments imposed by the acquisition process,
- the meagre achievements of the country’s domestic development organisations,
- the weaknesses of the higher defence management system,
- India’s inability to reconcile the need for self-sufficiency in defence production with the necessity of maintaining technological superiority over rival
Issue – F16 manufacturing in indiaNO
- If fighting broke out with Pakistan, US might withhold the supply
- US own do so as it would hamper its reputation as credible supplier
- F16 is old aircraft. F35 is the new gen one
- India’s long time defines partners like Russia and France might not take this well
- The new President in US might relook at the deal due to its impact on jobs in US of A
- Would give an impetus to Make in India in defense
- Spillover effect
- More than 3000 f16 in use worldwide which will need maintenance (MRO hub – maintenance, repair and overhaul)
- Many countries ar looking to buy the aricrafts
- it might fulfil India’s requirement of Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) as well
- One of the cheapest of its kind available. 80$million a piece in contrast to 250$ million a piece for Rafael
Future military challenges
- Future wars will probably not be single serivce business.
- They are likely to be short wherein all focuses would be deployed simultaneously.
- Indian military could be increasingly called upon to play expeditionary roles far from Indian shores
- Overseas interventions would mean a much greater role for India’s naval and air forces.
Joint Chief of Defense staff
- India is perhaps the only major military that does not have a CDS.
- In 2011, the Naresh Chandra task force on national security recommended the appointment of a permanent chairman, chiefs of staff committee.
- The appointment of CDS is aimed at promoting “jointness at the top” when it comes to planning, operations and modernization of the military.
- The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence has demanded that the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) be appointed at the earliest.
- This has created problems for the integration of the three services and on issues like prioritisation and join training.
- “Jointness” in many countries has emerged from fiscal considerations.
- There is an expectation that a CDS will adjudicate on these matters, enhancing effectiveness and improving expenditure.
- Single-point military advice to the government without any conflict of interest. Currently each service chief recommends advice based on his own service perspective. For example, different advices by the army and air-force to the government regarding the application of airpower during Kargil War.
- Result in maximization of our defense capabilities through professional merger and optimal utilization of resources through synergy of perspectives by resolving inter-service doctrinal, planning, procurement and operational issues. He will be better positioned to manage nuclear arsenal.
- Secretary of defense doesn’t have the specialization to act as a common rallying point. Further, civilian bureaucracy has no experience in defense matters but has a major say in defense planning, procurement and decision-making. This is expected to change through the post.
- Services Headquarters act as attached offices with MoD. This leads to bureaucratic override over its suggestions. The new post will better integrate the two.
- There is no clarity on what is being envisaged
- it is necessary to bring clarity to the role and powers of the service chiefs
- a critical element for successful reforms is to have vigilant monitoring and pehaps external oversight
- Fear that CDS will erode supremacy of civil over military. It is unfounded as CDS is not a Supreme Commander. It will only be a Inter-Services professional coordinator with individual service chiefs having right of direct access to the head of the Government.
- The existing Chief of Staff Committee (COSC) has successfully met our Defence requirements in past and status quo should not be disturbed. However, the annually changing Chairman of COSC is in no position to provide effective, professional and unbiased advice to the government. Currently, the competitive issues do not get resolved and are left pending.
- CDS is necessary only for countries having global ambitions of military domination. However, any war, global or regional cannot be fought by any service on its own and has to be a multi-services operation. Moreover, India is the only major country in the world not having a CDS
- Authority of smaller forces, Navy and Air Force being swamped by the much larger Army. This internal resistance is unjustified as regardless of service from which CDS is from, the question of bias should not arise if it is not encumbered with responsibility of looking after his parent service. Also, it should be a rotating appointment from amongst the services.
Suggestions for Indian military structre
- A US like matrix structure when the operational and support roles are split
- Military could have geographical command
- Service chiefs are responsible for equipping and organising.
- Functional commands are for strategic forces and special operations.
- Rebalance the three services
Civilian control of defense
- Top structure is civilian.
- All the ordnance depots are manned and controlled by the civilians.
- DRDO is controlled by civilians.
- Defence production is also headed by civilian authorities.
- Defence budget is also decided by the civilian authorities.
- Defence accounts are also headed by the civilian authorities.
- Defence land is also controlled by the civilian authorities (Defence Forces Estates Services).
- Armed Forces Headquarters Service is also a civilian bureaucracy.
- The highest level where the 3 defence chiefs meet without any civilian representation is the CoSC level. Beyond this all committees have civilian representation.
- Power of the civil authorities to call defence forces for help under certain circumstances.
Role of Defence Forces in Aid to Civil Power
- This is a statutory power given to civilian authorities (to call defence forces for help). But once called in, all operations are commanded by the defence forces only.
- Civilian authority can seek any help from the troops under following circumstances:
- To maintain law and order.
- To maintain essential services.
- To assist the civilian authority during natural calamities.
- Any other assistance that may be asked for by the competent civilian authority.
- Principles governing calling the defence forces by the civilian authorities: (NIFF)
- Principle of necessity. The necessity should be such that it demands calling of the armed forces.
- Principle of minimal force. In case there is a threat and a force has to be applied, then minimum sufficient force should be used.
- Principle of impartiality. When the troops are called in, they shall function in an impartial manner. Can’t be called to quell political protests as the Egyptian army demonstrated.
- Principle of good faith. No malafide intention in calling the defence forces.
What motivates and Indian army solider?
- The military’s secular motivation of naam, namak aur nishan (reputation, loyalty and flag) rallies troops across the religious divide
- But today, with soldiers on mobile phones and social media, the cantonments are a part of the world outside.
Rafael the fighter
On 10 April 2015, during Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Paris, it was announced that India would buy 36 Dassault Rafales in fly-away condition.
Thedeal was finalised in November 2015. However, it got stalled for a considerable amount of time in terms of price negotiation. Finally, the deadlock has been resolved.
On 23 September 2016, Indian Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and his French counterpart Jean-Yves Le Drian signed the contract for the purchase of 36 Rafales in a deal worth 7.8 billion Euros. The first Rafale warplanes are slated to be delivered roughly within three years of the signing of the deal. The first aircraft will be delivered to the IAF in 2019, with the full complement of aircraft to be delivered by 2022.
Defence Minsiter Rajnath Singh likely to fly in Indian Rafale on Dussehra.
ITBP under army command on LAC with China in western sector
- LAC is maintained jointly by the army and ITBP (doesn’t work under army). ITBP is under MHA and it refused to hand over the control to the army.
- If we keep ITBP at the border, we send a signal to China that we are willing to accept it as an international border because ITBP is a police force. A police force mans only internationally agreed borders.
- Also army is better equipped to maintain the border. China’s border police is also there but functions under the Chinese army command. So ITBP can be maintained there but command given under army.
Cold Start doctrine
- Cold Start is a military doctrine developed by the Indian Armed Forces for use in a possible war with Pakistan It involves the various branches of India’s military conducting offensive operations as part of unified battle groups.
- The Cold Start doctrine is intended to allow India’s conventional forces to perform holding attacks in order to prevent a nuclear retaliation from Pakistan in case of a conflict.
Jai Hind 🇮🇳
Pressure groups are organizations that seek to exert influence on government from outside. They do not therefore put candidates up for election. In that sense, they are part of civil society.
These groups use a number of methods to achieve their aims including lobbying, research campaigns, media campaigns, policy briefs and polls.
Insider and Outsider groups
The insider/outsider distinction is based on a group’s relationship to government. It therefore affects both the strategies adopted by a group and its status i.e. whether or not it is considered ‘legitimate’ or ‘established’.
Insider groups are groups that are consulted on a regular basis by government. They operate ‘inside’ the decision-making process.
Outsider groups on the other hands are the ones that are not so closely involved with the decision makers and who find it harder to get their voices heard in the higher echelons of policy making. They are kept, or choose to remain, at arm’s length from government.
Functions of pressure groups – Pressure groups carry out a range of functions. These include:
Difference between Political Party and Pressure groups
Methods of operation of pressure groups in India
The pressure groups adopt different methods to realise their goals. These methods even include cordial rapport with the political party in power, to resorting to agitational methods.
The pressure groups finance the political parties during the election time and sometimes even during the non-election times. They control the parties through this funding mechanism.
It is believed that several members of the national and state legislative bodies are on the rolls of the top industrial groups. The pressure groups also maintain close rapport with the State apparatus, viz., the bureaucratic machinery.
The organised pressure groups maintain a wavelength with the key bureaucrats. The role of rampant corruption needs no mention. The liaison officers are appointed to take care of the bureaucrats, particularly when they are stubborn. The lobbyists, middlemen, etc. have acquired enough of skills to manage them.
Limitations of Pressure Groups in India
• In India, organised groups largely influence the administrative process rather than the formulation of policy. This is dangerous as a gap is created between policy formulation and implementation.
• Many a time factors of caste and religion eclipse the socioeconomic interests.
• Many of the groups have a very short life because of the lack of resources.
• In a country like India the tendency to politicise every issue, whether it has social, economic, cultural import, restricts the scope, working, and effectiveness of pressure groups. Instead of the pressure groups exerting influence on political process, they become tools and implements to subserve political interest
Are pressure groups becoming more powerful? – Those who argue that pressure groups have become more powerful usually draw attention to one of three developments:
1. The growth of cause groups. Looked at simply in terms of political participation, groups certainly appear to be becoming more important. This is best demonstrated by the growth of cause groups in particular.
2. The widening of access points through devolution
3. Globalization. Globalization has strengthened pressure groups in a number of ways. In particular, there is general agreement that business groups have become more powerful in a global age. This is because they are able more easily to relocate production and investment, so exerting greater leverage on national governments
Difference between Indian and American pressure groups
Firstly, the American pressure groups are regarded as the fourth organ of the government bu the Indian pressure groups are not yet able to play such significant role in politics.
Secondly, in India and Great Britain the cabinet and civil service are the main targets of pressure groups for lobbying purposes rather than the Parliament. However, the targets o American pressure groups are the Congress and its committees rather than the President fo lobbying purposes
Thirdly, Indian pressure groups based on caste, religion, region, etc. are more powerful tha the modern groups like business organisations.
Fourthly, a significant feature of American pressure groups is that in the USA pressure groups take interest in foreign policy issues while in India pressure groups do not seem to have interest in foreign policy matters. Comparatively, the Indian pressure groups are concerned more with domestic policy issues and problems, and less with foreign policy matters.